The development of psychological trauma
Psycho trauma doesn’t happen right away. It goes through certain stages.
Usually a short stage. It is characterized by human adaptation (misunderstanding) and denial (attempts to defend oneself).
It’s a longer stage. It is a manifestation of different emotions, little controlled by the person: fear, horror, anger, crying, accusation, anxiety. At the same stage, there is self-accusation, scrolling of options (“and what would happen if …”), self-blaming. A clear example: the torments of the survivors in the event of an accident.
Recovery or PTSD
But then there are two possible options: recovery as the third stage (acceptance of the fact of what happened, adaptation to new conditions, elaboration and living of emotions) or the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a variant of cycling on trauma. Of course, the first option is normal from a psychological point of view.
Types of psychological trauma
There are two types of psychological trauma: a brief, unexpected traumatic event and a constantly repetitive effect of an external factor.
It’s a kind of trauma that’s typical of this type of injury:
- a single impact that threatens the life and safety of a person or people of importance, requiring an individual to react beyond his or her capabilities;
- a rare, isolated experience;
- an unexpected event;
- the event leaves a psychological mark, the emotions associated with the event are brighter and stronger than in the second type;
- the event leads to obsessive thoughts of trauma, avoidance and physical reactivity;
- Rapid recovery is rare.
- Constant impact
- The second type of trauma is typical:
Multiple, variable and predictable influences;
- The situation is intentional;
- at the first incident, the experience is similar to the first type, but already at the second and subsequent repetitions the character of the situation experience changes;
- A feeling of helplessness and impossibility to prevent re-traumatization;
- The memories in this case are not so bright, vague and heterogeneous;
- Against this type of background, the self-concept of the person changes: the self-esteem decreases, shame and guilt arises;
- Personal changes occur that result in a person behaving in isolation;
- There are such protective mechanisms as dissociation (memories of the fact that the event took place with someone else), denial, attempts to silence reality (drunkenness).
Thus, the first type of injury may include an accident, disaster, terrorist attack, robbery. The second one is drunkenness of the husband (father, mother) with the following variable debates (if drunk, it means something bad will happen, but it is not quite clear what exactly).
The consequences of psychological trauma
Unprocessed psychological trauma can result in PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder), acute mental disorders, psychosomatic illnesses, and addictive behaviors.
Psychogenic non-psychotic disorders
Reactions: asthenic, depressive, hysterical syndrome, decreased motivation and purposefulness of actions, inadequate assessment of reality, situational and effective reactions.
Conditions: asthenic, hysterical, depressive neurosis, exhaustion, obsessive states. Loss of critical and goal-setting opportunities for anxiety-phobic disorders.
Reactive psychotic disorders
There are irreversible disturbances in any sphere: consciousness, thinking, motor-will, emotional sphere.
Acute disorders: affective shock reactions, excessive agitation or inhibition, blurred consciousness.
Protracted disorders: depressive psychosis, paranoid, hysterical, pseudo-demanding (imitation of dementia), hallucinations.
How to get rid of psychological trauma
Clinical psychologists or psychotherapists are required to provide treatment. It is necessary to understand the normality of the condition, to reconsider a traumatic situation (to reconsider), to learn to calmly worry about a situation, to reconstruct interaction with itself and the world on a new way, to return belief in itself, to build new purposes.
The correction plan is always selected individually. In treatment of psychological traumas it is used:
- Gestalt therapy;
- Cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy;
- Provocative therapy;
- NLP (Neurolinguistic Programming);
- Psychosuggestive therapy.
- In case of addiction or other serious disorders, medical care is prescribed.