To diagnose the acute stage of PTSD, it is enough to be observed by a specialist. At later stages, diagnostic tests, methods for evaluating PTSD itself and for detecting and assessing disorders should be carried out. There are a lot of them, I will name some of them.
- SCID is a structured clinical interview for diagnostics.
- PTSD Clinical Diagnostic Scale (symptom identification).
- Scale of dissociation.
- Spielberger-Hanin’s questionnaire to assess anxiety levels.
- GR – traumatic stress questionnaire (I. Kotenev).
To identify personality disorders:
- Minnesota multidisciplinary personal questionnaire (mental disorders).
- Lusher color test (reveals unconscious anxiety and psychological discomfort).
- SUN – assessment of health, activity, mood.
- Value orientations test of Rokic.
- Any tests for anxiety, aggressiveness, depression.
Correct diagnosis is a very important element. Therefore, it is necessary to entrust it to a professional. It is important to properly assemble the methods, choose one or more. It is possible that you will need additional methods, such as self-diagnostic tests.
With regard to children, it is better to use conversation, color test and protective methods. Or output the PTSD index. To do this, you need to answer the following statements:
- The event is perceived as a strong stressor.
- The child is upset when they think about the event.
- Afraid of repeating the event.
- He is afraid when he thinks about the event.
- Avoids what reminds her of the event.
- Excited (nervous) easily frightened.
- Wants to avoid feelings.
- Obsessive thoughts.
- Bad dreams.
- Sleep disturbances.
- Obsessive images and sounds.
- Loss of interest in previously significant activities.
- Difficulties of concentration of attention.
- Detachment (increase in interpersonal distance).
- Thoughts about the event interfere with learning.
Each time a positive statement is made, a point is awarded. 7-9 points indicate a slight degree of PTSD, 10-11 – a medium degree, from 12 and above – heavy.
The main method of treatment is psychotherapy. It should begin with normalization, i.e. discussing the feelings and emotions of the victim and their normality. It is important to establish partnership relations with the victim, and for this purpose to take into account his vulnerability, low self-esteem and vulnerability. It is also important to consider the individuality of each person and the different flow of PTSD.
The more time has passed since the trauma, the more difficult it will be to work with, as PTSD is already closely intertwined with the personality structure and other psychological problems. Psychotherapy can take from one month to several years. If the person has kept the relationship at work and at home, has a positive attitude towards psychotherapy, the prognosis of correction is safe. Otherwise, – unfavorable. But you can never say for sure.
Work with victims is carried out in the following areas:
- Correction of the self-concept;
- Formation of objective self-esteem;
- Return of self-confidence;
- restoring the system of needs and values, including their hierarchy;
- correction of claims and expectations (with orientation to the current psychophysiological possibilities);
- Return of empathy, establishment of relations with others, return of ability to establish close relations;
- mastering the science of conflict prevention and resolution, development of communication skills;
- elimination of depression and unhealthy lifestyle.
The therapy usually uses 4 types of methods:
- Education education. To break the myth of uniqueness and loneliness in the problem, it is necessary to familiarize the victim with books, articles, TV programs, scientific theories, classifications, and clinical international symptoms of PTSD.
- Promotion of a holistic and healthy lifestyle. Description of its importance for recovery from PTSD.
- Social rehabilitation, i.e. active involvement of a person in society: group and family therapies, rehabilitation centers.
- Psychotherapy itself, broken down by each of the identified issues (fear, grief, depression, psychosomatics and others).
In psychotherapy, 3 methods are the most popular and effective.
Desensitization and study of eye movement
The method should not be used by untrained people, non-professionals, as it can harm the victim. Rapid eye movements activate a psycho physiological mechanism that processes and adapts stressful information. In PTSD, the trauma seems to be frozen and the mechanism blocked. Eye movements activate it and remove the trauma. The number and duration of sessions is selected individually.
Visual and kinetic dissociation
It refers to NLP technicians. The technique assumes that the victim has hidden resources. It is necessary to transfer them from the subconscious level to the conscious level and train them to handle them. The procedure assumes viewing of a traumatic situation and installation of anchors in safe places. A person seems to look at himself from the outside: in safe and traumatic situations. The event of injury and the negative from it is placed between the happy memories.
Attenuation of a traumatic incident
Assumes re-residence of the injury under the supervision of a specialist. It can be the viewing of frames, images – in general, any visualization. The essence is that there is a rethinking, re-evaluation of the injury. An important condition is to provide a safe space for the therapist and the victim’s consent to the procedure, his openness. This is just a review. Comment and evaluation, discussion are excluded. It is necessary not stopping to pass a way once again from the beginning and up to the end. The review is repeated until the victim is able to look at it quietly.
This is not all the methods that can be used. Psychological debriefing, other NLP techniques, gestalt therapy, “support group”, group therapy, family and conjugal therapy, hypnosis, art therapy are also used. The nature of the injury should be taken into account when selecting correction methods. For example, if you experience grief or a potential suicide, the correction program will be very different.