PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) – what is it in psychology

Post-traumatic stress disorder is a delayed response to a psychologically traumatic event, an emergency. PTSD can lead to mental disorders, is a mental illness and is managed by a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist.

No one is insured against PTSD, as these are essentially the consequences of stress. But a special group of risk is made up of people of difficult professions, for example, military and medical personnel. Although it is worth remembering the recently popular high-profile cases of the use of weapons in schools, shopping centers, and it becomes clear that an emergency situation can occur anywhere. And even a certain style of family upbringing can be a situation for a child that has caused PTSD in the future.

What is PTSD

In 1980, all the information accumulated on the topic of traumatic stress was combined, and a number of characteristic diagnostic criteria were identified for PTSD itself. PTSD can occur both for the object of influence from outside and for the witness of such influence (e.g. murder witness).

PTSD is an anomalous variant of living a psychological trauma, cycling on it instead of normal experience and recovery. PTSD creates irreversible changes in physiological, mental, personal, professional, interpersonal and social aspects of human life. In this connection, a variant of including a provision on post-traumatic personality disorders in the diagnostic criteria of PTSD is currently under consideration.

Interestingly, the first changes may occur not only immediately after the trauma, but even long after it, while progressing rapidly and rapidly. There have been documented cases of war veterans showing signs of PTSD 40 years after the war ended.

Formation of PTSD

A psychological trauma occurs during, immediately after or within two days of an unacceptable situation. Acute stress disorder develops from two days to a month, after a month – PTSD. Pathological personality changes occur throughout life, i.e. the development of post-traumatic stress disorder.

“Hole in the soul”, “emptiness in the soul”, “darkness in the soul” are called PTSD by the people. This is really a heavy burden that a person brings to everyday life. But with this burden the usual life is already impossible. It is extremely difficult to regain a sense of security and self-control and control over the situation. As a result, the person is in constant tension, which, of course, has a devastating effect on the psyche.

How does a person get caught up in the trauma?

  • A person wants to get rid of mental pain, forgetting the situation, ignoring what happened, not trying to change something in himself. “I want to forget what happened,” he says.
  • As time goes by, it really feels like they’re being forgotten, but in fact they’re becoming subconscious, not going away at all.
  • And all the same destroying emotions continue to influence, but already on an unconscious level. Periodically, no matter how hard a person tries to avoid these emotions, they break out. As a result, the individual loses control over himself and the situation.
  • Externally, a person may look very happy, but the emotions accumulated inside will sooner or later make themselves known.
  • Just one smell, sound, color, resembling a traumatic situation is enough to plunge a person back into his most terrible nightmare, which was once a reality. This can happen over and over again, of course, it’s “pounding” a person and he’s getting a little out of the way of life at all.
  • The more often such a situation occurs, the more the individual tries to avoid similar circumstances, not to stumble upon irritants-orientations, guides to the world of the past. And it turns out that the trauma is constantly worried. All thoughts are busy with her: no matter how much she repeats herself.

It is possible to find incentive-orientations anywhere, from what the person more and more closes in itself and four walls. Because of eternal control and avoidance, anxiety develops insomnia, deteriorate the function of cognitive processes, there are psychosomatic diseases, a person becomes irritable. In the end, he is mentally and physically exhausted. It is obvious that life in such conditions is more like a dull existence.

Risk factors

There are certain factors that increase the risk of PTSD development. These include:

  • Character accentuation;
  • sociopathy;
  • Mental development is below the norm;
  • Chemical Dependencies;
  • Mental disorders in history (genes);
  • traumatic experience;
  • Childhood or old age;
  • difficult socioeconomic situation of an individual, family, society;
  • isolation at the time of experiencing trauma;
  • Inadequate environmental response (encouraging ill reactions) and late or inappropriate care.

In general, whether the development of PTSD is influenced by how subjective and objective the threat was; how close the person was to the center of events; how close the person was to the center of events; and how close people reacted and were involved. The latter is especially important for children: children’s reactions largely depend on the reactions of their parents.

A traumatic situation is one condition for the development of PTSD, while another condition is the corresponding characteristics of a person’s inner world and reactions to trauma, which in each case are individual.